Archive for the ‘PaaS’ Category Announces They Mean Business

November 5, 2008 Leave a comment

I had some business to take care of in downtown San Francisco this morning, and on my way to my destination, I strolled past Moscone Center, the site of this year’s Dreamforce conference. The news coming out of that conference had peaked my interest a day earlier–I’ll get to that in a minute–but when I saw the graphics and catch phrase of the conference, I had to laugh. Not in mockery, mind you; it was just ironic.

There, spanning the vast entrances of both Moscone North and South was nothing but blue skies and fluffy white…wait for it…clouds. In other words, the single theme of the conference visuals was, I can only assume, cloud computing. Not CRM, not “making your business better”, but an implementation mechanism; a way of doing IT. That’s the irony, in my mind; that in this amazing month or so of cloud computing history, one of the companies most aggressively associating themselves with cloud computing was a CRM company, not a compute capacity or storage provider.

Except, was already blurring the lines between PaaS and SaaS, even as they open the door to their partners and customers taking advantage of IaaS where it makes sense. Even before Marc Benioff’s keynote yesterday, it was clear that was far more than a way to simply customize the core CRM offering. Granted, most applications launched there took advantage of data or services in one way or another, but there was clear evidence that the SF gang were targeting a PaaS platform that stood alone, even as it provided the easiest way to draw customers into the CRM application.

The core of the new announcement, Sites, appears to simply be an extension of this. The idea behind Sites is to provide a web site framework that allows customers to address both Intranet and Internet applications without needing to run any infrastructure on-premises. Of course, if you find the built in SF integration makes adopting the CRM platform easier, then SF would be happy to help. Their goal, you see, is summed up in the conference catch phrase: “The End of Software”. (Of course, let’s just ignore the fact that is a software development platform, any way you cut it.)

Skeptical that you can get what you need from a single PaaS offering? Here’s where the genius part of the day’s announcements come in; simply utilize Amazon for the computing and storage needs that was unable to provide. Heck, yeah.

Allow me to observe something important, here. First, note that Salesforce does not have an existing packages software model; thus, there is no incentive whatsoever to offer an on-premesis alternative. Touche, Microsoft. Second, note that has no problem whatsoever with partnering with someone who does something better than them. En guarde, Google. Finally, pay attention to the fact is expanding its business offerings in a way that both serves existing customers in increasingly powerful ways, while inviting new, non CRM customers to use productive tools that just happen to include integration with the core offering. PaaS as a marketing hook, not necessarily a business model in and of itself. (If it succeeds on its own, that’s icing on the cake.)

In a three week period that has seen some of the most revolutionary cloud computing announcements, managed to not only keep themselves relevant, but further managed to make a grab for significant cloud mindshare. Fluffy, white, cloud mindshare.


Microsoft Azure May Be Too Good To Ignore

November 1, 2008 Leave a comment

There is an interesting twist coming out of the events of last week that I think warrants explicit notice. By “connecting the dots” on a series of observations, one can come to the conclusion that Microsoft is now well in advance of any of the other major software systems vendors when it comes to establishing the platform of tomorrow. And, yes, though most of the Oslo/Azure world is not open source, it just may be better.

Start with the Azure and Oslo announcements, demonstrations and presentations from PDC 2008. As I noted earlier, Microsoft now has the most advanced PaaS offering on the market, much more enterprise friendly than Google AppEngine. (AppEngine wins out for extreme scale web applications, however–hands down.)

I watched the high level overview of Oslo given by Douglas Purdy, a product unit manager working on next generation tools at Microsoft. It was riveting. The thought and engineering that went into the models and tools demonstrated in that 70+ minutes were revolutionary to me. Meta-programming of generalized models with the capability to underwrite both domain-specific and generalized programming languages. If that sentence doesn’t make sense, watch the video.

Here’s the thing. Oslo goes beyond the Java/C# debates. It creates a platform in which complex systems can be described by a series of fairly simple models, assembled together as needed to meet the task at hand. Text tools for the low level stuff, visual tools for the high level assembly, etc. It really was an eye opening view of what Microsoft has been working on now for a few years.

Now take a look at Azure, and the “All-Enterprise” infrastructure that will be available there. Identity services (OpenID, no less), an Enterprise Service Bus, relational and unstructured database services–the list goes on. If you take the time to learn .NET, you can get an amazing experience where the development tools just flow into the deployment models, which just flow into the operational advantages, whether on-premises or in the cloud.

Yeah, Azure is PaaS and Microsoft-centric to start, but may just work as advertised. Note as well that all this functionality required little or no open source. As James Governor notes:

…[C]ustomers always vote with their feet, and they tend vote for something somewhat proprietary – see Salesforce APEX and iPhone apps for example.

and Dion Almaer (who happens to be a Google developer) notes:

We can’t just be Open, we have to be better!” [Emphasis his]

Let it be known that Microsoft may have actually thrown down the gauntlet, started growing their “Tribe”, in which case the rest of the industry would need to decide quickly how to respond.

I still maintain that Azure is only interesting to the existing Microsoft development pool. However, it they have great success in creating and hosting enterprise applications, IBM and HP (and Amazon and Google) are going to have a tough time convincing others that their option is the better option. If Oslo provides a technology that revolutionizes development, it seals the fate of many if not all PaaS platforms (i.e. “adapt or die”). This would mean that any power law effects that may exist would go in Microsoft’s favor. Azure FTW.

Postlude: All of this was triggered by a Nick Carr observation of a Jack Schofield story. I recommend highly reading both, as well as Governor’s and Almaer’s posts.

Categories: cloud computing, PaaS

The PaaS Spectrum: Choosing Your Coding Cloud

October 12, 2008 Leave a comment

Platform as a Service is a fascinating space to me. As I noted in one of my reviews of Google AppEngine when it was released, there is a certain development experience that comes with a good distributed platform that understands both simple development-test cycles, yet also reduces the complexity of delivering highly scalable and reliable applications to a complex data center. With the right platform, and there are many, a development team can leapfrog the hours of pain and effort required to stitch together hardware, software, networking and storage to create a bulletproof web application.

At Cloud Camp Silicon Valley earlier this month, a group of us discussed this in some depth. A crowd of about thirty assorted representatives of cloud vendors and customers alike engaged in a lively discussion of what the elements of cloud oriented architectures are, and how one chooses the right architecture.

I spoke (perhaps too much) about software fluidity, and it was noted that many PaaS platforms limit that fluidity, rather than enable it. Think Google AppEngine or or Bungee Connect. Great products, but not exactly built to make your application portable and dynamic. (Google and others are open sourcing all or part of their platforms, but the ecosystem to port applications isn’t there yet. See below.) So, the conclusion went, perhaps you choose some PaaS offerings when time-to-market was the central tenet of your project, not portability. Others (possibly including IaaS, if you want to be technical) make sense when portability is your primary concern, but you’ll have to do more work to get your application out the door.

This creates a spectrum on which PaaS offerings would fall:

This makes perfect sense to me. Choose to use an “all-in-one” platform from a single software+service+infrastructure vendor, and they can hide much of the complexity of coding, deploying and operating your application from you. On the other hand, select an infrastructure-only vendor using “standard” OS images (typically based on one of the major linux distros) but little else, and you can port your applications to your hearts content, but you’ll have to do all of the configuration of database connection, middleware memory parameters, etc. yourself. Many platforms will lie somewhere in the middle of this spectrum, but the differences between the edges is striking, and most platforms will fall towards one end or the other.

For an example of a relatively “extreme right” platform, take a look at, the application platform provided by, and tied closely to,, and its APEX language. How much do they provide in the way of productivity? Well, Rich Unger, an engineer at (and one of the participants in the CloudCamp SV discussion), has an excellent blog that covers APEX. Here’s one example that he gives:

“Database operations don’t have to establish a connection (much less manage a connection pool) [in APEX]. Also, the object-relational mapping is built into the language. It’s even statically typed. Let’s say you want the first and last names of all your contacts. In Java, there are many ways to set this up, depending on whether you’re using JPA, straight JDBC, entity beans, etc. In general, you must to at least these four things:

  1. Write an entity class, and annotate it or map it to a DB table in an xml file
  2. Configure the DB and connection pool
  3. acquire a connection in the client code
  4. Perform the query

In Apex, you’d do just do #4:

Contact[] mycontacts = [select firstname, lastname from Contact];
for (Contact c : mycontacts) {
System.debug(c.firstname + ' ' + c.lastname);

That’s it. You could even shorten this by putting the query right into the for loop. The language knows how to connect to the DB. There’s no configuration involved. I’m not hiding any XML files. Contact is a standard data type. If you wanted a custom data type, you’d configure that through the UI (no coding). Adding the new type to the DB automatically configures the O-R mapping. Furthermore, if you tried:

Account[] myaccounts = [select firstname, lastname from Contact];

…it wouldn’t even compile. Static typing right on down to the query. Try that by passing strings into Jdbc!”

Freakin’ brilliant! That is, as long as you wanted to write an application that used the databases and ran on the infrastructure. Not code that you can run on AppEngine or EC2.

On the other hand, I’ve been working with GoGrid for a little while getting Alfresco to run in a clustered configuration on their standard images. It has been amazing, and helped along both by the fact that GoGrid gives you root access to the virtual server (very cool!), and that the standard Alfresco Enterprise download (trial version available for free) contains a Tomcat instance, and installs with a tar command, a single properties file change and a database script. So, combine a CentOS 64-bit image with Alfresco 2.2 Enterprise, make sure iptables has port 8080 open, and away you go. The best thing is that–in theory–I should be able to grab the relevant files from that CentOS image, copy them to a similar image on, say, Flexiscale, and be up and running in minutes. However, I did have to manage some very techie things; I had to edit iptables, for instance, and know how to confirm that I had the right Java version for Tomcat.

By the way, long term operational issues are similarly affected by your choice of PaaS provider. If you have root access to the server, you must handle a measurable percentage of issues that are driven by configuration changes over time in your system. On the other hand, if your code is running on a complete stack that the vendor maintains for backward compatibility, and that hides configuration issues from you at the get-go, you may not have to do much of anything to keep your system running at reasonable service levels.

Today, the choice is up to you.

I wonder, though, if this spectrum has to be so spread out. For example, as I wrote recently, I see a huge opportunity for application middleware vendors, such as GigaSpaces, BEA and JBOSS, to provide a “portability layer” that would allow both reduced configuration on prebuilt app server/OS images, but at the same time allow the application on top of the app server to be portable to just about any instance of that server in the cloud. (There would likely be more configuration required on the middleware option than the APEX example earlier. For instance, the application server and/or application itself would have to be “pointed” to the database server.)

Google AppEngine should, in theory, be on this list. However, while they open sourced the API and development “simulator”, they have not provided source to the true middleware itself–the so-called Google “magic dust”. Implementing a truly scalable alternative AppEngine platform is an exercise left up to the reader. Has anyone built a true alternative AppEngine-compatible infrastructure yet? I hear rumors of what’s to come, but as far as I know, nothing exists today. So, AppEngine is not yet portable. To be fair, there is no JBOSS “cloud edition” yet, either. GigaSpaces is the only vendor I’ve seen actively pursue this route.

While we are waiting for more flexible options, you are left with a choice to make. Do you need it now at all costs? Do you need it portable at all costs? Or do you need something in between? Where you fall in the PaaS spectrum is entirely up to you.

Update: The Cloud Computing Bill of Rights

Thanks to all that provided input on the first revision of the Cloud Computing Bill of Rights. The feedback has been incredible, including several eye opening references, and some basic concepts that were missed the first time through. An updated “CCBOR” is below, but I first want to directly outline the changes, and credit those that provided input.

  1. Abhishek Kumar points out that government interference in data privacy and security rights needs to be explicitly acknowledged. I hear him loud and clear, though I think the customer can expect only that laws will remain within the constitutional (or doctrinal) bounds of their particular government, and that government retains the right to create law as it deems necessary within those parameters.

    What must also be acknowledged, however, is that customers have the right to know exactly what laws are in force for the cloud systems they choose to use. Does this mean that vendors should hire civil rights lawyers, or that the customer is on their own to figure that out? I honestly don’t know.

  2. Peter Laird’s “The Good, Bad, and the Ugly of SaaS Terms of Service, Licenses, and Contracts” is a must read when it comes to data rights. It finds for enterprises what was observed by NPR the other night for individuals; that you have very few data privacy rights right now, that your provider probably has explicit provisions protecting them and exposing you or your organization, and the cloud exposes risks that enterprises avoid by owning their own clouds.

    This reinforces the notion that we must understand that privacy is not guaranteed in the cloud, no matter what your provider says. As Laird puts it:

    “…[A] customer should have an explicit and absolute right to data ownership regardless of how a contract is terminated.”

  3. Ian Osbourne asks “should there be a right to know where the data will be stored, and potentially a service level requirement to limit host countries?” I say absolutely! It will be impossible for customers to obey laws globally unless data is maintained in known jurisdictions. This was the catalyst for the “Follow the Law Computing” post. Good catch!

  4. John Marsh of GeekPAC links to his own emerging attempt at a Bill of Rights. In it, he points out a critical concept that I missed:

    “[Vendors] may not terminate [customer] account[s] for political statements, inappropriate language, statements of sexual nature, religious commentary, or statements critical of [the vendor’s] service, with exceptions for specific laws, eg. hate speech, where they apply.”

    Bravo, and noted.

  5. Unfortunately, the federal courts have handed down a series of rulings that challenge the ability of global citizens and businesses to do business securely and privately in the cloud. This Bill of Rights is already under grave attack.

Below is the complete text of the second revision of the Cloud Computing Bill of Rights. Let’s call the first “CCBOR 0.1” and this one “CCBOR 0.2”. I’ll update the original post to reflect the versioning.

One last note. My intention in presenting this post was not to become the authority on cloud computing consumer rights. It is, rather, the cornerstone of my Cloud Computing Architecture discussion, in which I need to move on to the next point. I’m working on setting up a WIKI for this “document”. Is there anyone out there in particular that would like to host it?

The Cloud Computing Bill of Rights (0.2)

In the course of technical history, there exist few critical innovations that forever change the way technical economies operate; forever changing the expectations that customers and vendors have of each other, and the architectures on which both rely for commerce. We, the parties entering into a new era driven by one such innovation–that of network based services, platforms and applications, known at the writing of this document as “cloud computing”–do hereby avow the following (mostly) inalienable rights:

  • Article I: Customers Own Their Data

    1. No vendor shall, in the course of its relationship with any customer, claim ownership of any data uploaded, created, generated, modified, hosted or in any other way associated with the customer’s intellectual property, engineering effort or media creativity. This also includes account configuration data, customer generated tags and categories, usage and traffic metrics, and any other form of analytics or meta data collection.

      Customer data is understood to include all data directly maintained by the customer, as well as that of the customer’s own customers. It is also understood to include all source code and data related to configuring and operating software directly developed by the customer, except for data expressly owned by the underlying infrastructure or platform provided by the vendor.

    2. Vendors shall always provide, at a minimum, API level access to all customer data as described above. This API level access will allow the customer to write software which, when executed against the API, allows access to any customer maintained data, either in bulk or record-by-record as needed. As standards and protocols are defined that allow for bulk or real-time movement of data between cloud vendors, each vendor will endeavor to implement such technologies, and will not attempt to stall such implementation in an attempt to lock in its customers.

    3. Customers own their data, which in turn means they own responsibility for the data’s security and adherence to privacy laws and agreements. As with monitoring and data access APIs, vendors will endeavor to provide customers with the tools and services they need to meet their own customers’ expectations. However, customers are responsible for determining a vendor’s relevancy to specific requirements, and to provide backstops, auditing and even indemnification as required by agreements with their own customers.

      Ultimately, however, governments are responsible for the regulatory environments that define the limits of security and privacy laws. As governments can choose any legal requirement that works within the constraints of their own constitutions or doctrines, customers must be aware of what may or may not happen to their data in the jurisdictions in which data resides, is processed or is referenced. As constitutions vary from country to country, it may not even be required for governments to inform customers what specific actions are taken with or against their data. That laws exist that could put their data in jeopardy, however, is the minimum that governments convey to the market.

      Customers (and their customers) must leverage the legislative mechanisms of any jurisdiction of concern to change those parameters.

      In order for enough trust to be built into the online cloud economy, however, governments should endeavor to build a legal framework that respects corporate and individual privacy, and overall data security. While national security is important, governments must be careful not to create an atmosphere in which the customers and vendors of the cloud distrust their ability to securely conduct business within the jurisdiction, either directly or indirectly.

    4. Because regulatory effects weigh so heavily on data usage, security and privacy, vendors shall, at a minimum, inform customers specifically where their data is housed. A better option would be to provide mechanisms by which users can choose where their data will be stored. Either way, vendors should also endeavor to work with customers to assure that their systems designs do not conflict with known legal or regulatory obstacles. This is assumed to apply to primary, backup and archived data instances.
  • Article II: Vendors and Customers Jointly Own System Service Levels

    1. Vendors own, and shall do everything in their power to meet, service level targets committed to with any given customer. All required effort and expense necessary to meet those explicit service levels will be spent freely and without additional expense to the customer. While the specific legally binding contracts or business agreements will spell out these requirements, it is noted here that these service level agreements are entered into expressly to protect both the customer’s and vendor’s business interests, and all decisions by the vendor will take both parties equally into account.

      Where no explicit service level agreement exists with a customer, the vendor will endeavor to meet any expressed service level targets provided in marketing literature or the like. At no time will it be acceptable for a vendor to declare a high level of service at a base price, only to later indicate that that level of service is only available at a higher premium price.

      It is perfectly acceptable, however, for a vendor to expressly sell a higher level of service at a higher price, as long as they make that clear at all points where a customer may evaluate or purchase the service.

    2. Ultimately, though, customers own their service level commitments to their own internal or external customers, and the customer understands that it is their responsibility to take into account possible failures by each vendor that they do business with.

      Customers relying on a single vendor to meet their own service level commitments enter into an implicit agreement to tie their own service level commitments to the vendor’s, and to live and die by the vendor’s own infrastructure reliability. Those customers who take their own commitments seriously will seek to build or obtain independent monitoring, failure recovery and disaster recovery systems.

    3. Where customer/vendor system integration is necessary, the vendor’s must offer options for monitoring the viability of that integration at as many architectural levels as required to allow the customer to meet their own service level commitments. Where standards exist for such monitoring, the vendor will implement those standards in a timely and complete fashion. The vendor should not underestimate the importance of this monitoring to the customer’s own business commitments.

    4. Under no circumstances will vendors terminate customer accounts for political statements, inappropriate language, statements of sexual nature, religious commentary, or statements critical of the vendor’s service, with exceptions for specific laws, e.g. hate speech, where they apply.
  • Article III: Vendors Own Their Interfaces

    1. Vendors are under no obligation to provide “open” or “standard” interfaces, other than as described above for data access and monitoring. APIs for modifying user experience, frameworks for building extensions or even complete applications for the vendor platform, or such technologies can be developed however the vendor sees fit. If a vendor chooses to require developers to write applications in a custom programming language with esoteric data storage algorithms and heavily piracy protected execution systems, so be it.

      If it seems that this completely abdicates the customer’s power in the business relationship, this is not so. As the “cloud” is a marketplace of technology infrastructures, platforms and applications, the customer exercises their power by choosing where to spend their hard earned money. A decision to select a platform vendor that locks you into proprietary Python libraries, for instance, is a choice to support such programming lock-in. On the other hand, insistence on portable virtual machine formats will drive the market towards a true commodity compute capacity model.

      The key reason for giving vendors such power is to maximize innovation. By restricting how technology gets developed or released, the market risks restricting the ways in which technologists can innovate. History shows that eventually the “open” market catches up to most innovations (or bypasses them altogether), and the pace at which this happens is greatly accelerated by open source. Nonetheless, forcing innovation through open source or any other single method runs the risk of weakening capitalist entrepreneurial risk taking.

    2. The customer, however, has the right to use any method legally possible to extend, replicate, leverage or better any given vendor technology. If a vendor provides a proprietary API for virtual machine management in their cloud, customers (aka “the community”, in this case) have every right to experiment with “home grown” implementations of alternative technologies using that same API. This is also true for replicating cloud platform functionality, or even complete applications–though, again, the right only extends to legal means.

      Possibly the best thing a cloud vendor can do to extend their community, and encourage innovation on their platform from community members is to open their platform as much as possible. By making themselves the “reference platform” for their respective market space, an open vendor creates a petrie dish of sorts for cultivating differentiating features and successes on their platform. Protective proprietary vendors are on their own.

These three articles serve as the baseline for customer, vendor and, as necessary, government relationships in the new network-based computing marketplace. No claim is made that this document is complete, or final. These articles may be changed or extended at any time, and additional articles can be declared, whether in response to new technologies or business models, or simply to reflect the business reality of the marketplace. It is also a community document, and others are encouraged to bend and shape it in their own venues.

The Principles of a Cloud Oriented Architecture

The market is hot. The technologies are appearing fast and furious. The tools you need are out there, but they are young, often untested, and always deliver unpredictable reliability. You’ve researched the economics, and you know now that cloud computing is a) here to stay, and b) offers economic advantages that–if realized–could stretch you IT budget and quite possibly catapult your career.

Now what?

What is often overlooked in the gleeful rush to cloud computing is the difficulty in molding the early technologies in the space into a truly bulletproof (or even bullet-resistant) business infrastructure. You see it all over the Internet; the push and pull between innovation and reliability, the concerns about security, monitoring and control, even the constant confusion over what entails cloud computing, what technologies to select for a given problem, and how to create an enterprise-class business system out of those technologies.

The truth is, cloud computing doesn’t launch our technical architectures into the future. It is, at its heart, an economic model that drives the parameters around how you acquire, pay for and scale the infrastructure architectures you already know. Its not a question of changing the required problems to solve when utilizing data centers, just a change to the division of responsibilities amongst yourself, your organization, your cloud providers and the Internet itself.

To this end, I offer you a series of posts (perhaps moving to a WIKI in the near future) describing in depth my research into what it takes to deliver a systems architecture with the following traits:

  1. It partially or entirely incorporates the clouds for at least one layer of the Infrastructure/Platform/Application stack.
  2. Is focused on consumers of cloud technologies, not the requirements of those delivering cloud infrastructures, either public or private (or even dark).
  3. Takes into account a variety of technical, economic and even political factors that systems running in the “cloud” must take into account.
  4. Is focused at least as much on the operational aspects of the system as the design and development aspects

The idea here is not to introduce an entirely new paradigm–that’s the last thing we need given the complexity of the task ahead of us. Nor is it to replace the basic principles of SOA or any other software architecture. Rather, the focus of this series is on how to best prepare for the new set of requirements before us.

Think about it. We already deal (or try to deal) with a world in which we don’t entirely have control over every aspect of the world our applications live in. If we are software developers, we rely on others to build our servers, configure our networks, provide us storage and weld them all together into a cohesive unit. System administrators are, in large enterprises anyway, specializing in OS/application stacks, networking, storage or system management. (Increasingly you can add facilities and traditional utilities to this list.)

Even when we outsource to others–shifting responsibility for management of parts or all of our IT infrastructure to a vendor–the vendor doesn’t have control over significant elements of the end-to-end operations of our applications; namely, the Internet itself. But with outsourcing, we typically turn over entire, intact architecture stacks, with a few, very well bounded integration points to manage (if any) between outsourced systems and locally maintained systems.

The cloud is going to mess this up. I say this not just because the business relationship is different from outsourcing, but also because what you are “turning over” can be a *part* of a system stack. Smugmug outsources storage and job processing, but not the web experience that relies on both. Applications that run entirely on EC2/S3 outsource the entire infrastructure, but not the application development, or even the application system management. (This is why RightScale, Hyperic and others are finding some traction with AWS customers.)

To prepare for a cloud oriented architecture, one understand what responsibilities lie where. So, I’ll give you a teaser of what is to come with the short-short version of where I see these responsibilities lying (subject to change as I talk to others, including yourselves if you choose to comment on this post):

  • The enterprise has responsibility for the following:
    • Defining the business solution to be solved, the use cases that define that solution, and the functional requirements to deliver those use cases
    • Evaluating the selection of technical and economic approaches for delivering those functional requirements, and selecting the best combination of the two. (In other words, the best combination may not contain either the best technical or best economic selection, but will outweigh any other combination of the two.)
    • Owning the service level agreements with the business for the delivery of those use cases. This is critically important. More on this below.
  • The cloud provider has responsibility for the following:
    • Delivering what they promised you (or the market) that they would deliver. No more, no less.
    • Providing you with transparent and honest billing and support services.
  • The Internet itself is only responsible for providing you with an open, survivability reliable infrastructure for interconnecting the networks you need to run your applications and/or services. There are no promises here about reliability or scalability or even availability. It should be considered a technical wilderness, and treated accordingly.

Now, about SLAs. Your cloud provider does not own your SLAs, you do. They may provide some SLAs that support your own, but they are not to be blamed if you fail to achieve the SLAs demanded of you. If your applications or services fail because the cloud failed, you failed. Given that, don’t “outsource” your SLAs, at least not logically. Own them.

In fact, I would argue that the single most important function of a cloud-centric IT shop after getting required business functionality up and running in the first place, is monitoring and actively managing that functionality; switching vendors, if necessary, to continue service at required levels. The one big piece of IT-specific software that should always run in IT data centers, in my opinion, is the NOC infrastructure. (Although, perhaps in this context its more of a Cloud Operations Center, but I hate the resulting acronym for obvious reasons.)

I’ll focus more on these responsibilities in future posts. All posts in this series will be tagged “coa principles”. Please feel free to provide me feedback in the comments, contact me to review your thoughts on this topic, or simply to send me links that you think I should be aware of. I am also working to find other bloggers who wish to take ownerships of parts of this primer (cloud security, for example) so let me know if you are interested there as well.

I am excited about this. This body of knowledge (or at least the faint traces of knowledge) have been rattling inside my head for some time, and it feels good to finally be sharing them with you.

Cloud Outages, and Why *You* Have To Design For Failure

I haven’t posted for a while because I have been thinking…a lot…about cloud computing, inevitable data center outages, and what it means to application architectures. Try as I might to put the problem on the cloud providers, I keep coming back to one bare fact; the cloud is going to expose a lot of the shortcomings of today’s distributed architectures, and this time it’s up to us to make things right.

It all started with some highly informative posts from the Data Center Knowledge blog chronicling outages at major hosting companies, and failures that helped online companies learn important lessons about scaling, etc. As I read these posts, the thought that struck my mind was, “Well, of course. These types of things are inevitable. Who could possibly predict every possible negative influence on an application, much less a data center.” I’ve been in enough enterprise IT shops to know that even the very best are prepared for something unexpected to happen. In fact, what defines the best shops are that they assume failure and prepare for it.

Then came the stories of disgruntled employees locking down critical information systems or punching the emergency power kill switch on their way out the door. Whether or not you are using the cloud, human psychology being what it is, we have to live every day with immaturity or even just plain insanity.

Yet, each time one of the big name cloud vendors has an outage–Google had one, as did Amazon a few times, including this weekend–there are a bunch of IT guys crying out, “Well, there you go. The cloud is not ready for production.”

Baloney, I say. (Well, I actually use different vocabulary, but you get the drift.) Truth is, the cloud is just exposing people’s unreasonable expectations for what a distributed, disparate computing environment provides. The idea that some capacity vendor is going to give you 100% up time for years on end–whether they promised it or not–is just delusional. Getting angry at your vendor for an isolated incident or poo-pooing the market in general just demonstrates a lack of understanding of the reality of networked applications and infrastructure.

If you are building an application for the Internet–much less the cloud–you are building a distributed software system. A distributed system, by definition, relies on a network for communication. Some years ago, Sun’s Peter Deutsch and others at Sun postulated a series of fallacies that tend to be the pitfalls that all distributed systems developers run into at one time or another in their career. Hell, I still have to check my work against these each and every time I design a distributed system.

Key among these is the delusion that the network is reliable. It isn’t, it never has been, and it never will be. For network applications, great design is defined by the application or application system’s ability to weather undesirable states. There are a variety of techniques for achieving this, such as redundancy and caching, but I will dive into those in more depth in a later post. (A great source for these concepts is

Some of the true pioneers in the cloud realized this early. Phil Wainwright notes that Alan Williamson of Mediafed made what appears to be a prescient decision to split their processing load between two cloud providers, Amazon EC2/S3 and FlexiScale. Even Amazon themselves use caching to mitigate S3 outages on their retail sites (see bottom of linked post for their statement).

Michael Hickins notes in his E-Piphanies blog that this may be an amazing opportunity for some skilled entrepreneurs to broker failure resistance in the cloud. I agree, but I think good distributed system hygiene begins at home. I think the best statement is a comment I saw on ReadWriteWeb:

“People rankled about 5 hours of downtime should try providing the same level of service. In my experience, it’s much easier to write-off your own mistakes (and most organizations do), than it is to understand someone else’s — even when they’re doing a better job than you would.”

Amen, brother.

So, in a near future post I’ll go into some depth about what you can do to utilize a “cloud oriented architecture”. Until then, remember: Only you can prevent distributed application failures.

Which Sun Do You Orbit?

I love cloud computing. I love the concept, I love many of the implementations, and I love the opportunity that such a major disruption creates for entrepreneurs and tech giants alike. There is much to be excited about, though the market is in its infancy.

Or markets, if you look closely. Simon noted that at his Opscon presentation this year he ended up on the receiving end of an extended diatribe from a gentleman who was arguing determinately that software would never be portable between Amazon EC2 and Google AppEngine (which is probably very true). Simon’s response was right on the money:

“I must admit I was somewhat perplexed at why this person ever thought they would and why they were talking to me about it. I explained my view but I also thought that I’d reiterate the same points here.

From the ideas of componentisation, the software stack contains three main stable layers of subsystems from the application to the framework to hardware. This entire software stack is shifting from a product to a service based economy (due to commoditisation of IT) and this will eventually lead to numerous competitive utility computing markets based upon open sourced standards at the various layers of this stack.

These markets will depend upon substitutability (which includes portability and interoperability) between providers. For example you might have multiple providers offering services which match the open SDK of Google App Engine or another market with providers matching Eucalyptus. What you won’t get is substitutability from one layer of the stack (e.g. the hardware level where EC2 resides) to another (e.g. the framework level where GAE resides). They are totally different things: apples and pears.”

I want to take Simon’s “stack” theory and refine it further. Look at the layers of the stack, and note that there appears to be a relatively small number of companies in each that can actually drive a large following to their particular set of “standards”. In the platform space, of course Google’s python-focused (for now) restricted library set is where much of the focus is, but no one has counted out Bungie Labs yet, nor is anyone ignoring what Yahoo might do in this space. Each vendor has their framework (as Simon rightly calls the platform itself), but each has a few followers building tools, extensions, replications and other projects aimed at both benefiting from and extending the benefits of the platform. The diagram below identifies many of the current central players, or “suns”, that exist in each technology stack today:

Credit: Kent Langley, ProductionScale

I call these communities of central players and satellites “solar systems” (though perhaps it would be more accurate to call them “nodes and edges”, as we will see later).

In each solar system–say the Google AppEngine solar system–you will find an enthusiastic community of followers who thoroughly learn the platform, push its limits, and frequently (though not in every case) find economic and productivity benefits that keep them coming back. Furthermore, the most successful satellite projects will attract their own satellites, and an ever changing environment will form, though the original central players will likely maintain their role for decades (basically until the market is disrupted by an even better technical paradigm).

You already see a very strong Amazon system forming. RightScale, Enomalism and ELASTRA, are all key satellites to AWS’s sun. Now you are even starting to hear about satellites of satellites in that space, such as GigaSpace’s partnership with RightScale. However, if you look closely at this system, you begin to see the breakdown in the strict interpretation of this analogy, as several of the players (CohesiveFT’s ElasticServer On-Demand, for example) starting to address multiple suns in a particular “stack”. Thus my earlier comment that perhaps a nodal analogy is somewhat better.

The key here is that for some time from now, technologies created for the cloud will be attached to one or two so-called solar systems in the stack the technology addresses. Slowly standards will start to appear (as one solar system begins to dominate or subsume the others), and eventually the stack will play as a commodity market, though (I would argue) still centered around one key player. By the time this happens, some cross pollination of the stacks themselves will start happen (as has already happened with the prototype of GAE running in EC2), at which point new gaps in standards will be identified. This is going to take probably two decades to play out entirely, at which point the cloud market will probably already face a major disruptive alternative (or “reinvention”).

I say this not to be cynical nor to pontificate for pontification’s sake. I say this because I believe developers are already starting to choose their “solar system”, and thus their technological options are already being dictated by which satellite technologies apply to their chosen sun. Recognizing this as OK, in fact natural to the process, and acknowledging that religious wars between platforms–or at least stacks–is kind of pointless, will make for a better climate to accelerate the consolidation of technical platforms into a small set of commodity markets. Then the real fun begins.

Of course, I’m a big fan of religious wars myself…